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Free Downloads for Interior Design – you are welcome to share these with friends and associates. Click on the links below to download free PDF files. PREFACE Interior design is a fast developing discipline. Its importance lies in the fact that the interior use of an en. Download this free interior design ebook featuring the best designs on Home Designing. (Ebook is in PDF format with MB size. So make sure you have a.
Or not — Download now! Created to bring together a unique sense of living, this is the place to follow and to fall in love with the simple lines and colourful tones of the mid-century world and the various styles behind it. For ten days, the event invites French and international professionals and the general public to discover the best showcases of design in Paris. Euroluce, the International Lighting Exhibition , runs every two years since and presents the most innovative solutions in the field of light for interiors and exteriors.
Get inside this big design event with this ebook! Summer Holidays: Best Decor Hostels. We really hope you liked our article. Feel free to pin all the images to your Pinterest board where you keep the best inspirations. You can also print the images and use it on your mood board. You can also visit our Pinterest Board in order to find more inspirations on interior designs and architecture. Get more ideas for your interior design projects and find functional, stylish, sizable and trendy decor choices.
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See all results. Subscribe A customizable modal perfect for newsletters. Login with ajax is not installed or active. To use this feature, please install it. More Stories. There are many reasons for this. Many designers prefer artificial light for dramatic effect of interiors. However a good combination of natural and artificial lighting will save energy consumption. Artistic placement of lights can bring out important areas and keep subordinate areas in shadow.
There are several types of artificial lighting appliances available today for interior designers. Now, let us discuss the 'Principles' 2. Balance - Balance is equalisation of attraction on both sides of the centre.
There are two types of balance. Emphasis - Emphasis helps to centre the interest to the most important thing or spot in any arrangement. It should be called as focal point or cenVe of interest. If there is one main emphasized point in a room then others will become subdued. Few examples are a window, an arch. The point of emphasis should be decided by the interior designer.
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Emphasis 2. Rhythm - Rhythm is the movement of the eye' across a design. It is a kind of organised movement in continuity. Rhythm develops through repetition of shapes, lines or colours.
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Rhythm 2. Proportion - Proportion is the consideration'of weight. It demands that all space divisions should be pleasingly related to each other. For example the division-of a room 4. Unity of Harmony - When all the elements of design are nicely related, then the design has unity or harmony. For example if all items have same colour or similar type of wood or. All forms, lines, textures and colours should be harmonious.
The colours need not be the same always, but they can be complementary or matching one another. Gold is the most uncorruptable and perfect of all the metals, so similarly this propotional relationship is also believed to be perfect.
It can be described as the relationship of two unequal parts, where the ratio of the smaller part to the larger pan is the same as that of the larger part to the whole. The ratio can be approximately assumed as 1:I. Assume 'a' as the..
A G lden mean rectangle can be generated from a given square. First the square is divided into half, then the diagonal of one of these rectangles is rotated d6wn along the side of the original square. From the end of the rotated diagonal the desired Golden mean rectangle is constructed.
Example: Assume a square of 4. It is 4.
Draw the diagonal arch OB cutting at F. It is 16 sq. It is 9. It is What are the elements of design composition? What are the principles of design composition? What is 'Golden mean rectangle'? The knowledge of different building materials, their properties and uses help in achieving economy and efficient use of materials.
The cost of materials in the construction of a building ranges from 60 to 70 percent of the total cost. Some essential building materials are described below. Many new building materials are combinations of these materials or further innovations of these materials. It is extensively used in general ,building cQnstruction and ornamental carving. It is also used for general building purposes and manufacturing of lime.
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Harder slates are used fot damp-proofmg and steps of staircases. It is also used for flooring and other decorative works. It is used in foundations of structures and superstructures also, but not used for ornamental work.
I g Laterite - It is normally used for inferior type of stone masonry work. Stone aggregate - Aggregate is a general term applied to all inert materials which when bonded together with cement form concrete. General properties a A good building stone should be hard, tough, compact grained and unifonn in texture and oolour. Stone should be properly seasoned by exposure to the air before they are put in a structure.
They should be small enough to be lifted and placed by hand. Length should be three times of the height and breadth, and it should not be less than six inches.
Maximum height should be one foot. All stones should be wetted before use. Stone masonry types a Random rubble masonry b Coursed random rubble masonry c Square rubble coursed and uncoursed masonry d Ashlar a Random rubble masonry - The stones are hammer dressed on the face, sides and beds to such an extent that the stones will come into close proximity with the neighbouring stones. Random Rubble Mason! No face stone should '''be narrower or shorte.
Square Rubble Masonry Uncoursed Fig. Ashlar 2. C Terracota A Bricks The manufacturing of bricks involves four distinct operations.
They are earth preparation for bricks, moulding, drying and buining. The - normal sizes of bricks available in India are 9" x 4 a Brick properties -- r x 3" and 10" x 5" x : The surface should not be too smooth because mortar will not stick to it. All bricks should be soaked in water for about one hour before use.
B TIles - They can be divided into two classes. Flooring tiles 2. RooImg tiles 3. Quarry tiles. Glazedearthenwaretiles , 1. Square tile siZes are 15 x 15 ems with 18 mm thickness, and 20 x 20 cms with 20 mm thickness Roofing tiles - There are number of vaqeties. These are generally rectangular in plan. For example Mangalore tiles, Allahabad tiles, flemish tiles and country tiles.
Quarry tiles - These are very dense and possess a good wear resisting property. They are used for heavy wear or chemical resistance flooring. Glazed earthenware tiles - The top side of the tile should be glazed and the underside should be completely free from glaze so that the tiles may stick well to the surface.
The edges should be free from glaze. These are generally used in finishing floors and walls of kitchens, bathrooms, water closets and. Terracota - It is a kind of earthenware made from superior clay by burning. Hollow terracota blocks are used as a substitute for stone in ornamental parts.
Porous terracota is a fire resisting material. It mainly consists of three ingredients lime, silica and alumina. Lime 60 to 65 percent and silica 20 to 25 percent.
Manufacturing of dment by wet process can be-divided into three stages.. First stage is mixing of raw materials, second stage is burning and third stage is grinding.
There are other varieties of cement apart from portland cement, they are as described below: A Rapid hardening cement - This type of cement attains high strength in early days because of increased lime content in composition and bumingat higher temperature and finer grinding. This type of cement is used in concrete when earlyhigh strengths are needed either to remove form work quickly or speedy construction or in cold weather conditions to reduce the period of protection against low temperature or to achieve economy for early higher strengths.
B Quick selling cement - This type of special cement starts setting within five minutes of water addition and becomes bard like stone within thirty minutes. This is produced by adding small percentage of aluminium sulphate as an accelerator and also by reducing percentage of gypsum and fine grinding. This type of cement is used where the work has to be completed in a short time.
For example cement concreting in static or running water.
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C White cement - This is a variety of ordinary cement and prepared from such raw materials which are practically free from iron oxide.
It is more costly and used for architectural decoration purposes. I D Pozzalona cement- Pozzalona is a volcanic powder found in thermal plants. It is mixed with cement clinker to prepare cement.
This can also be used for internal plastering for economical building construction. This is used to bond masonry or other structural units. The uses of mortars are as mentioned below: To unite bricks or stones in the construction of brick and stone masonry. Lime acts as a binding material for preparing mortar when it is to be used in masonry work. Generally lime to sand ratio is Where cement acts as a binding material.
The proportion of cement to sand varies from tC' depending upon the desired strength. Surkhi mortar - It is a mixture of lime, surkhi and water. Here sand is substituted by surkhi for economy and strength.
A Plain Cement Concrete - It is a mixture of cement, water and aggregate.
It has high compressive strength. It has good workability as it can be moulded into different shapes. It has high durability value and not much affected by atmospheric conditions. It is a good insulator and has a fairly good fire resistance. B Reinforced Cement Concrete RCC - In reinforced cement concrete, both concrete and reinforcing metal usually steel are combined to act together as one material and produce a more economical material than either acting alone.
A general proportion of mix is for general work. C Presttessed Concrete - This is a modification over RCC in which steel provides high initial compressive stresses in the concrete so that it may resist tensile stresses without cracking. Prestressed concrete saves upto fifty percent of concrete and quantity of steel is also reduced as high tens.!!
D Lime Concrete - It is a mixture of lime, fine and coarse aggregates and water in proportion. In reinforced brick concrete, steel rods are embedded inrement concrete which take teJlSion whereas compression is. This is cheaper than RCC. TIMBER Timber is that part of wood of a tree which is of sufficient size and can be used for builQing, carpentary and various other construction purposes. Timber is available in different forms.
They are: Converted timber, which is sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes. A Properties of good timber Timber should have sufficient weight. A timber with heavy weight is considered to be sound and strong. B Seasoning of timbers. This is the process of drying of timber in order to remove all the plant juice and moisture out of it so that it will not decay.Fluorescent lamps The fluorescent lamp depends on the discharge of a current through a gas or a vapour at a low pressure.
A G lden mean rectangle can be generated from a given square. Emphasis - Emphasis helps to centre the interest to the most important thing or spot in any arrangement. From this tank, water is pumped to the roof level for storing separately for drinking and general use. Artificial lighting has become common in interior design today due to the lack of natural light in the interiors. Describe various traps used in the sanitation of buildings? In reinforced brick concrete, steel rods are embedded inrement concrete which take teJlSion whereas compression is.